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BIDAR HISTORY


This fort was build by the Bahmani Sultan Ahmed Shah in 1426-32 AD. With a 55 km long immensely thick wall and several unusual defence features. The fort has a unique triple moat, believed to have been built by Turkish mercenaries. The fort abounds in tunnels and underground chambers that allowed quick escapes in emergencies. It was also protected by 37 bastions, several enormous cannons stationed on towers around the fort and large magzines for arms storage. Other defensive elements include it seven well-protected gateways. In the zigzag passage between these gateways, three thousand men could take up positions for defending the fort. Another gate, the ingeniously designed Mandu Darwaza, has its entrance through a well defended underground tunnel.

The fort has ample provisions for water, with several wells and pipelines in its distribution network. It is considered one of the most formidable forts in the country. Bidar's miltary architecture has strongly influence the planning and design of several other medieval cities like Golkonda, Bijapur Hyderabad and Bengaluru. The palace complex of the fort is accessed through two man gates on the south eastern side the Sharza Darwaza and Gumbad Darwaza, both massive structures, beautifully decorated with huge domes, arches and paintings. Several monuments within the fort, such as the Takht Mahal, Tarkash Mahal, Rangeen Mahal, Gagan Mahal, Shahi Matbakh (Royal Kitchen) Diwan-i-Am (Public audience hall), SolahKhamb Mosque and the Naubat Khana are note worthy for their diverse architectural styles.

The recorded History of the city goes back to third century B.C. when it was of the great Mauryan Empire. After the Mauryas, Satavahanas, Kadambas and Chalukyas of Badami and later Rashtrakutas reigned over Bidar territory. Chalukyas of Kalyana and Kalachuris also regained the area. For a short period after Kalyani Chalukyas the area of Bidar was under the sevunas of Devgiri and Kakatiyas of Warangal.

Delhi rulers first headed by Allauddin Khilji and later Muhammed-bin-Tughluq took control of entire Deccan including Bidar. About the middle of the 14th Century the Officers of Sultan stationed in Deccan rebelled and this resulted in the establishment of Bahamani Dynasty in 1347 A.D. at Gulbarga (present Kalaburagi). There were frequent warfare between the Bahamnis and Vijaynagar Kingdom

The history of the present fort at Bidar is attributed to the Sultan Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah the first sultan of the Bahmani dynasty to 1427 when he shifted his capital from Gulbarga to Bidar since it had better climatic conditions and was also a fertile and fruit bearing land. Earliest recorded history of its existence as a small and strong fort is also traced to Prince Ulugh Khan in 1322, whereafter it came under the reign of the Tughlaq dynasty.

According to the book "Bidar Heritage" published by the stateDepartment of Archaeology, Museums and Heritage, of the 61 monuments listed by the department, about 30 are tombslocated in and around Bidar city. This explains the nickname -The City of Whispering Monuments. The heritage sites in and around Bidar have become the major attraction for film shooting in recent years with Bollywoodmaking visits apart from kannada film industry.

BIDAR HISTORY